|Skeptic Argument||vs||What the Science Says|
|1||"Climate's changed before"||Climate reacts to whatever forces it to change at the time; humans are now the dominant forcing.|
|2||"It's the sun"||
In the last 35 years of global warming, sun and climate have been going in opposite directions
|3||"It's not bad"||Negative impacts of global warming on agriculture, health & environment far outweigh any positives.|
|4||"There is no consensus"||
97% of climate experts agree humans are causing global warming.
|5||"It's cooling"||The last decade 2000-2009 was the hottest on record.|
|6||"Models are unreliable"||Models successfully reproduce temperatures since 1900 globally, by land, in the air and the ocean.|
|7||"Temp record is unreliable"||The warming trend is the same in rural and urban areas, measured by thermometers and satellites.|
|8||"Animals and plants can adapt"||Global warming will cause mass extinctions of species that cannot adapt on short time scales.|
|9||"It hasn't warmed since 1998"||
Every part of the Earth's climate system has continued warming since 1998, with 2015 shattering temperature records.
|10||"Antarctica is gaining ice"||Satellites measure Antarctica losing land ice at an accelerating rate.|
|11||"Ice age predicted in the 70s"||The vast majority of climate papers in the 1970s predicted warming.|
|12||"CO2 lags temperature"||CO2 didn't initiate warming from past ice ages but it did amplify the warming.|
|13||"Climate sensitivity is low"||Net positive feedback is confirmed by many different lines of evidence.|
|14||"We're heading into an ice age"||Worry about global warming impacts in the next 100 years, not an ice age in over 10,000 years.|
|15||"Ocean acidification isn't serious"||Ocean acidification threatens entire marine food chains.|
|16||"Hockey stick is broken"||Recent studies agree that recent global temperatures are unprecedented in the last 1000 years.|
|17||"Climategate CRU emails suggest conspiracy"||A number of investigations have cleared scientists of any wrongdoing in the media-hyped email incident.|
|18||"Hurricanes aren't linked to global warming"||There is increasing evidence that hurricanes are getting stronger due to global warming.|
|19||"Al Gore got it wrong"||
Al Gore's book is quite accurate, and far more accurate than contrarian books.
|20||"Glaciers are growing"||Most glaciers are retreating, posing a serious problem for millions who rely on glaciers for water.|
|21||"It's cosmic rays"||Cosmic rays show no trend over the last 30 years & have had little impact on recent global warming.|
|22||"1934 - hottest year on record"||1934 was one of the hottest years in the US, not globally.|
|23||"It's freaking cold!"||A local cold day has nothing to do with the long-term trend of increasing global temperatures.|
|24||"Sea level rise is exaggerated"||A variety of different measurements find steadily rising sea levels over the past century.|
|25||"It's Urban Heat Island effect"||Urban and rural regions show the same warming trend.|
|26||"Medieval Warm Period was warmer"||Globally averaged temperature now is higher than global temperature in medieval times.|
|27||"Mars is warming"||
Mars is not warming globally.
|28||"Arctic icemelt is a natural cycle"||Thick arctic sea ice is undergoing a rapid retreat.|
|29||"Increasing CO2 has little to no effect"||The strong CO2 effect has been observed by many different measurements.|
|30||"Oceans are cooling"||The most recent ocean measurements show consistent warming.|
|31||"Human CO2 is a tiny % of CO2 emissions"||The natural cycle adds and removes CO2 to keep a balance; humans add extra CO2 without removing any.|
|32||"IPCC is alarmist"||
Numerous papers have documented how IPCC predictions are more likely to underestimate the climate response.
|33||"Water vapor is the most powerful greenhouse gas"||
Rising CO2 increases atmospheric water vapor, which makes global warming much worse.
|34||"Polar bear numbers are increasing"||Polar bears are in danger of extinction as well as many other species.|
|35||"CO2 limits will harm the economy"||
The benefits of a price on carbon outweigh the costs several times over.
|36||"It's not happening"||
There are many lines of evidence indicating global warming is unequivocal.
|37||"Greenland was green"||Other parts of the earth got colder when Greenland got warmer.|
|38||"Greenland is gaining ice"||Greenland on the whole is losing ice, as confirmed by satellite measurement.|
|39||"CO2 is not a pollutant"||
Through its impacts on the climate, CO2 presents a danger to public health and welfare, and thus qualifies as an air pollutant
|40||"CO2 is plant food"||
The effects of enhanced CO2 on terrestrial plants are variable and complex and dependent on numerous factors
|41||"Other planets are warming"||Mars and Jupiter are not warming, and anyway the sun has recently been cooling slightly.|
|42||"Arctic sea ice has recovered"||Thick arctic sea ice is in rapid retreat.|
|43||"There's no empirical evidence"||There are multiple lines of direct observations that humans are causing global warming.|
|44||"There's no correlation between CO2 and temperature"||There is long-term correlation between CO2 and global temperature; other effects are short-term.|
|45||"We're coming out of the Little Ice Age"||
Scientists have determined that the factors which caused the Little Ice Age cooling are not currently causing global warming
|46||"It cooled mid-century"||Mid-century cooling involved aerosols and is irrelevant for recent global warming.|
|47||"Global warming stopped in
Global temperature is still rising and 2010 was the hottest recorded.
|48||"CO2 was higher in the past"||
When CO2 was higher in the past, the sun was cooler.
|49||"It warmed before 1940 when CO2 was low"||Early 20th century warming is due to several causes, including rising CO2.|
|50||"Satellites show no warming in the troposphere"||The most recent satellite data show that the earth as a whole is warming.|
|51||"It's aerosols"||Aerosols have been masking global warming, which would be worse otherwise.|
|52||"2009-2010 winter saw record cold spells"||A cold day in Chicago in winter has nothing to do with the trend of global warming.|
|53||"It's El Niño"||El Nino has no trend and so is not responsible for the trend of global warming.|
|54||"Mt. Kilimanjaro's ice loss is due to land use"||Most glaciers are in rapid retreat worldwide, notwithstanding a few complicated cases.|
|55||"It's not us"||Multiple sets of independent observations find a human fingerprint on climate change.|
|56||"It's a natural cycle"||No known natural forcing fits the fingerprints of observed warming except anthropogenic greenhouse gases.|
|57||"There's no tropospheric hot spot"||We see a clear "short-term hot spot" - there's various evidence for a "long-term hot spot".|
|58||"It's Pacific Decadal Oscillation"||The PDO shows no trend, and therefore the PDO is not responsible for the trend of global warming.|
|59||"Scientists can't even predict weather"||Weather and climate are different; climate predictions do not need weather detail.|
|60||"IPCC were wrong about Himalayan glaciers"||
Glaciers are in rapid retreat worldwide, despite 1 error in 1 paragraph in a 1000 page IPCC report.
|61||"Greenhouse effect has been falsified"||The greenhouse effect is standard physics and confirmed by observations.|
|62||"2nd law of thermodynamics contradicts greenhouse theory"||The 2nd law of thermodynamics is consistent with the greenhouse effect which is directly observed.|
|63||"Clouds provide negative feedback"||Evidence is building that net cloud feedback is likely positive and unlikely to be strongly negative.|
|64||"The science isn't settled"||That human CO2 is causing global warming is known with high certainty & confirmed by observations.|
|65||"Sea level rise predictions are exaggerated"||Sea level rise is now increasing faster than predicted due to unexpectedly rapid ice melting.|
|66||"It's the ocean"||The oceans are warming and moreover are becoming more acidic, threatening the food chain.|
|67||"IPCC were wrong about Amazon rainforests"||
The IPCC statement on Amazon rainforests was correct, and was incorrectly reported in some media.
|68||"Corals are resilient to bleaching"||Globally about 1% of coral is dying out each year.|
|69||"CO2 effect is saturated"||Direct measurements find that rising CO2 is trapping more heat.|
|70||"Volcanoes emit more CO2 than humans"||Humans emit 100 times more CO2 than volcanoes.|
|71||"Greenland ice sheet won't collapse"||When Greenland was 3 to 5 degrees C warmer than today, a large portion of the Ice Sheet melted.|
|72||"It's methane"||Methane plays a minor role in global warming but could get much worse if permafrost starts to melt.|
|73||"500 scientists refute the consensus"||Around 97% of climate experts agree that humans are causing global warming.|
|74||"CO2 has a short residence time"||Excess CO2 from human emissions has a long residence time of over 100 years|
|75||"CO2 measurements are suspect"||CO2 levels are measured by hundreds of stations across the globe, all reporting the same trend.|
|76||"Humidity is falling"||Multiple lines of independent evidence indicate humidity is rising and provides positive feedback.|
|77||"Neptune is warming"||And the sun is cooling.|
|78||"Springs aren't advancing"||Hundreds of flowers across the UK are flowering earlier now than any time in 250 years.|
|79||"Jupiter is warming"||Jupiter is not warming, and anyway the sun is cooling.|
|80||"It's land use"||Land use plays a minor role in climate change, although carbon sequestration may help to mitigate.|
|81||"Scientists tried to 'hide the decline' in global temperature"||The 'decline' refers to a decline in northern tree-rings, not global temperature, and is openly discussed in papers and the IPCC reports.|
|82||"CO2 is not increasing"||CO2 is increasing rapidly, and is reaching levels not seen on the earth for millions of years.|
|83||"Record snowfall disproves global warming"||Warming leads to increased evaporation and precipitation, which falls as increased snow in winter.|
|84||"They changed the name from 'global warming' to 'climate change'"||
'Global warming' and 'climate change' mean different things and have both been used for decades.
|85||"Solar Cycle Length proves its the sun"||The sun has not warmed since 1970 and so cannot be driving global warming.|
|86||"CO2 is coming from the ocean"||The ocean is absorbing massive amounts of CO2, and is becoming more acidic as a result.|
|87||"IPCC overestimate temperature rise"||
Monckton used the IPCC equation in an inappropriate manner.
|88||"CO2 is not the only driver of climate"||Theory, models and direct measurement confirm CO2 is currently the main driver of climate change.|
|89||"Peer review process was corrupted"||An Independent Review concluded that CRU's actions were normal and didn't threaten the integrity of peer review.|
|90||"Southern sea ice is increasing"||Antarctic sea ice has grown in recent decades despite the Southern Ocean warming at the same time.|
|91||"It's microsite influences"||Microsite influences on temperature changes are minimal; good and bad sites show the same trend.|
|92||"Lindzen and Choi find low climate sensitivity"||Lindzen and Choi’s paper is viewed as unacceptably flawed by other climate scientists.|
|93||"Phil Jones says no global warming since 1995"||Phil Jones was misquoted.|
|94||"Humans are too insignificant to affect global climate"||Humans are small but powerful, and human CO2 emissions are causing global warming.|
|95||"Dropped stations introduce warming bias"||If the dropped stations had been kept, the temperature would actually be slightly higher.|
|96||"It's too hard"||Scientific studies have determined that current technology is sufficient to reduce greenhouse gas emissions enough to avoid dangerous climate change.|
|97||"It's albedo"||Albedo change in the Arctic, due to receding ice, is increasing global warming.|
|98||"Tree-rings diverge from temperature after 1960"||This is a detail that is complex, local, and irrelevant to the observed global warming trend.|
|99||"Roy Spencer finds negative feedback"||Spencer's model is too simple, excluding important factors like ocean dynamics and treats cloud feedbacks as forcings.|
|100||"Hansen's 1988 prediction was wrong"||
Jim Hansen had several possible scenarios; his mid-level scenario B was right.
|101||"It's global brightening"||This is a complex aerosol effect with unclear temperature significance.|
|102||"Earth hasn't warmed as much as expected"||This argument ignores the cooling effect of aerosols and the planet's thermal inertia.|
|103||"Arctic sea ice loss is matched by Antarctic sea ice gain"||Arctic sea ice loss is three times greater than Antarctic sea ice gain.|
|104||"It's a climate regime shift"||There is no evidence that climate has chaotic “regimes” on a long-term basis.|
|105||"Solar cycles cause global warming"||Over recent decades, the sun has been slightly cooling & is irrelevant to recent global warming.|
|106||"Less than half of published scientists endorse global warming"||Around 97% of climate experts agree that humans are causing global warming.|
|107||"Over 31,000 scientists signed the OISM Petition Project"||The 'OISM petition' was signed by only a few climatologists.|
|108||"Ice isn't melting"||
Arctic sea ice has shrunk by an area equal to Western Australia, and summer or multi-year sea ice might be all gone within a decade.
|109||"A drop in volcanic activity caused warming"||Volcanoes have had no warming effect in recent global warming - if anything, a cooling effect.|
|110||"Climate is chaotic and cannot be predicted"||Weather is chaotic but climate is driven by Earth's energy imbalance, which is more predictable.|
|111||"It's ozone"||Ozone has only a small effect.|
|112||"Freedom of Information (FOI) requests were ignored"||An independent inquiry found CRU is a small research unit with limited resources and their rigour and honesty are not in doubt.|
|113||"The IPCC consensus is phoney"||
113 nations signed onto the 2007 IPCC report, which is simply a summary of the current body of climate science evidence
|114||"Tuvalu sea level isn't rising"||Tuvalu sea level is rising 3 times larger than the global average.|
|115||"Naomi Oreskes' study on consensus was flawed"||Benny Peiser, the Oreskes critic, retracted his criticism.|
|116||"Renewables can't provide baseload power"||
A number of renewable sources already do provide baseload power, and we don't need renewables to provide a large percentage of baseload power immediately.
|117||"Trenberth can't account for the lack of warming"||Trenberth is talking about the details of energy flow, not whether global warming is happening.|
|118||"Ice Sheet losses are overestimated"||A number of independent measurements find extensive ice loss from Antarctica and Greenland.|
|119||"CRU tampered with temperature data"||An independent inquiry went back to primary data sources and were able to replicate CRU's results.|
|120||"Melting ice isn't warming the Arctic"||Melting ice leads to more sunlight being absorbed by water, thus heating the Arctic.|
|121||"Breathing contributes to CO2 buildup"||By breathing out, we are simply returning to the air the same CO2 that was there to begin with.|
|122||"Satellite error inflated Great Lakes temperatures"||Temperature errors in the Great Lakes region are not used in any global temperature records.|
|123||"Soares finds lack of correlation between CO2 and temperature"||Soares looks at short-term trends which are swamped by natural variations while ignoring the long-term correlation.|
|124||"We're heading into cooling"||There is no scientific basis for claims that the planet will begin to cool in the near future.|
|125||"Murry Salby finds CO2 rise is natural"||Multiple lines of evidence make it very clear that the rise in atmospheric CO2 is due to human emissions.|
|126||"Most of the last 10,000 years were warmer"||
This argument uses regional temperature data that ends in 1855, long before modern global warming began.
|127||"CO2 emissions do not correlate with CO2 concentration"||That humans are causing the rise in atmospheric CO2 is confirmed by multiple isotopic analyses.|
|128||"The sun is getting hotter"||The sun has just had the deepest solar minimum in 100 years.|
|129||"It's waste heat"||Greenhouse warming is adding 100 times more heat to the climate than waste heat.|
|130||"Water vapor in the stratosphere stopped global warming"||This possibility just means that future global warming could be even worse.|
|131||"It warmed just as fast in 1860-1880 and 1910-1940"||The warming trend over 1970 to 2001 is greater than warming from both 1860 to 1880 and 1910 to 1940.|
|132||"An exponential increase in CO2 will result in a linear increase in temperature"||CO2 levels are rising so fast that unless we decrease emissions, global warming will accelerate this century.|
|133||"Record high snow cover was set in winter 2008/2009"||Winter snow cover in 2008/2009 was average while the long-term trend in spring, summer, and annual snow cover is rapid decline.|
|134||"Mauna Loa is a volcano"||The global trend is calculated from hundreds of CO2 measuring stations and confirmed by satellites.|
|135||"CERN CLOUD experiment proved cosmic rays are causing global warming"||
The CERN CLOUD experiment only tested one-third of one out of four requirements necessary to blame global warming on cosmic rays, and two of the other requirements have already failed.
|136||"Water levels correlate with sunspots"||This detail is irrelevant to the observation of global warming caused by humans.|
|137||"Antarctica is too cold to lose ice"||Glaciers are sliding faster into the ocean because ice shelves are thinning due to warming oceans.|
|138||"Positive feedback means runaway warming"||Positive feedback won't lead to runaway warming; diminishing returns on feedback cycles limit the amplification.|
|139||"Skeptics were kept out of the IPCC?"||
Official records, Editors and emails suggest CRU scientists acted in the spirit if not the letter of IPCC rules.
|140||"CO2 was higher in the late Ordovician"||The sun was much cooler during the Ordovician.|
|141||"It's CFCs"||CFCs contribute at a small level.|
|142||"Scientists retracted claim that sea levels are rising"||The Siddall 2009 paper was retracted because its predicted sea level rise was too low.|
|143||"Warming causes CO2 rise"||Recent warming is due to rising CO2.|
|144||"Greenland has only lost a tiny fraction of its ice mass"||Greenland's ice loss is accelerating & will add metres of sea level rise in upcoming centuries.|
|145||"DMI show cooling Arctic"||While summer maximums have showed little trend, the annual average Arctic temperature has risen sharply in recent decades.|
|146||"Royal Society embraces skepticism"||The Royal Society still strongly state that human activity is the dominant cause of global warming.|
|147||"It's only a few degrees"||A few degrees of global warming has a huge impact on ice sheets, sea levels and other aspects of climate.|
|148||"97% consensus on human-caused global warming has been disproven"||
The 97% consensus has been independently confirmed by a number of different approaches and lines of evidence.
|149||"It's satellite microwave transmissions"||Satellite transmissions are extremely small and irrelevant.|
|150||"CO2 only causes 35% of global warming"||
CO2 and corresponding water vapor feedback are the biggest cause of global warming.
|151||"Sea level fell in 2010"||The temporary drop in sea level in 2010 was due to intense land flooding caused by a strong La Nina.|
|152||"Arctic sea ice extent was lower in the past"||
Current Arctic sea ice extent is the lowest in the past several thousand years.
|153||"We didn't have global warming during the Industrial Revolution"||CO2 emissions were much smaller 100 years ago.|
|154||"Loehle and Scafetta find a 60 year cycle causing global warming"||
Loehle and Scafetta's paper is nothing more than a curve fitting exercise with no physical basis using an overly simplistic model.
|155||"Postma disproved the greenhouse effect"||Postma's model contains many simple errors; in no way does Postma undermine the existence or necessity of the greenhouse effect.|
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