Explaining climate change science & rebutting global warming misinformation
Scientific skepticism is healthy. Scientists should always challenge themselves to improve their understanding. Yet this isn't what happens with climate change denial. Skeptics vigorously criticise any evidence that supports man-made global warming and yet embrace any argument, op-ed, blog or study that purports to refute global warming. This website gets skeptical about global warming skepticism. Do their arguments have any scientific basis? What does the peer reviewed scientific literature say?
Posted on 28 August 2014 by John Abraham
This is like the movie Groundhog Day. I seem forever forced to correct the State Department’s errant analysis of Alberta tar sands emissions. Now, however, other people are agreeing with me. A recent paper published in Nature Climate Change reviewed the State Department’s accounting and found it deeply flawed.
The authors, Peter Erickson and Michael Lazarus of the Stockholm Institute included the impacts of Keystone on the global oil markets. This inclusion tripled the climate change impact of the Keystone pipeline compared to the State Department’s analysis. Let’s get into the study to see the reason for the change and also to understand why even this new analysis is flawed.
First, the State Department assesses the impact of tar sands by assuming it will merely displace, barrel for barrel, some other oil extracted somewhere else on the planet. Therefore, the State Department analysis only counts the incremental emissions for tar sands. Tar sands are approximately 17% worse in terms of emissions than other fuels (it depends on which fuel is the reference); the State Department only counts these extra emissions.
Posted on 27 August 2014 by John Hartz
- Act now on climate change or face growing health risks - UN
- Climate change may disrupt global food system within a decade
- Climate sceptics see a conspiracy in Australia's record breaking heat
- Cutting emissions pays for itself, research shows
- Greenhouse gas emissions are growing, and growing more dangerous
- 'Incredible' rate of polar ice loss alarms scientists
- IPCC attribution statements redux: A response to Judith Curry
- Obama pursuing climate accord in lieu of treaty
- Pacific watch: Is El Niño finding its second wind?
- Soon, Europe might not need any new power plants
- The Climate Swerve
- UK’s winter floods strengthen belief humans causing climate change
- U.S think tank ALEC fights environmental legislation
- What will climate change do to the economy
- Why The Washington Post is running a series of editorials on the "existential threat" of climate change
Act now on climate change or face growing health risks - UN
Swift action to tackle climate change would reduce the damage to global health caused by rising air pollution and more extreme weather, top U.N. officials said on Wednesday.
Christiana Figueres, head of the United Nations climate change secretariat, told the first global conference on health and climate in Geneva that climate change is an "accelerating phenomenon that is already affecting, in particular, the most vulnerable populations due to impacts that are no longer preventable".
"At the same time, climate change is a global reality that threatens to impose much more severe and widespread health impacts, which could be avoided with timely measures," she added.
Dr Margaret Chan, director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO), which is hosting the gathering, said there is "overwhelming" evidence that climate change endangers health. “Solutions exist and we need to act decisively to change this trajectory,” she said.
Act now on climate change or face growing health risks - UN by Megan Rowling, Thomson Reuters Foundation, Aug 27, 2014
Posted on 27 August 2014 by John Mason
It is often said that a picture speaks a thousand words. The run of pictures below, it is hoped, will do a little more. They exist as a counterpoint to that laziest of claims - that, a few years ago, "they (the IPCC, Greenpeace, the Committee for Compulsory Implementation of Agenda 21 - take your pick) changed 'global warming' to 'climate change' because (insert pet theory here)".
Skeptical Science has of course published a detailed rebuttal to the talking-point here. But it's important to remind readers that an attempt to make that change in terminology actually occurred - but not by those who are usually accused of the act. Neither was it done for the reasons typically claimed by the opposition: in fact exactly the opposite. In 2002, prior to the mid-terms, the G.W. Bush administration (not exactly famous for its environmental track-record) sought advice on policy communication. It came, from Republican advisor and strategist Frank Luntz, in a long memo (PDF extract here), which included the observation:
"The scientific debate is closing [against us] but not yet closed. There is still a window of opportunity to challenge the science."
Luntz went on to advise:
"The terminology in the upcoming environmental debate needs refinement, starting with “global warming” and ending with “environmentalism.” It’s time for us to start talking about “climate change” instead of global warming and “conservation” instead of preservation.
1. “Climate change” is less frightening than “global warming.” As one focus group participant noted, climate change “sounds like you’re going from Pittsburgh to Fort Lauderdale.” While global warming has catastrophic connotations attached to it, climate change suggests a more controllable and less emotional challenge.
So there you have it. The only recorded attempt to emphasise "climate change" over "global warming" was to make the latter feel a bit cuddly to prospective Republican voters in 2002. But next time you run into someone trying to suggest otherwise, something that happens multiple times every day, simply link to this page and invite other readers to come and see for themselves. The following images are screengrabs mostly from PDF copies (available via Google Scholar) of peer-reviewed papers going back to the mid 1950s and ending in 1977, when an actual journal called Climatic Change was launched - oh, and don't forget to remind your protagonist of what "CC" stands for in IPCC (founded 1988).
Contrarians may take no notice, but many other readers will be quite capable of making their own minds up, if given checkable evidence. In all but one instance, they can do just that by clicking on a screengrab - they are linked straight to PDF copies of the papers concerned.
Posted on 26 August 2014 by Andy Skuce
The Athabasca Glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains is probably the easiest glacier in the world to access by car. It's just a few hundred metres' stroll from the nearest parking lot on the magnificent Icefields Parkway in Alberta. The problem is, the stroll keeps getting longer by about 10 metres every year. Since 1992, the snout of the glacier has retreated about 200 metres, requiring tourists anxious to set foot on the glacier to walk a little further. The glacier has lost about 2 km of its length since 1844 (Geovista PDF).
The Athabasca Glacier seen from the access trail. This point is about halfway from the parking lot and the current snout of the glacier, which is about 200 metres away. In the centre background is the ice-fall from the Columbia Icefield. The marker shows where the glacier snout was in 1992, coincidentally the year of the Rio Earth Summit. It is just possible to make out some people walking on the glacier on the left-hand side.Click for big.
Posted on 25 August 2014 by dana1981
Although the global climate has continued to build up heat at an incredibly rapid rate, there has been a keen focus among climate contrarians and in the media on the slowdown of the warming at the Earth’s surface. The slowdown is in fact a double cherry pick – it focuses only on the 2% of global warming that heats the atmosphere (over 90% heats the oceans), and it only considers the past 10–15 years. Nevertheless, because there was so much attention paid to the surface warming slowdown, the latest IPCC report addressed it specifically, saying,
The long-term climate model simulations show a trend in global-mean surface temperature from 1951 to 2012 that agrees with the observed trend (very high confidence). There are, however, differences between simulated and observed trends over periods as short as 10 to 15 years (e.g., 1998 to 2012).
From 1998 through 2012, the Met Office estimated that global surface temperatures had warmed by about 0.06°C, whereas the average climate model projection put the value at closer to 0.3°C. This apparent discrepancy only represented a tiny fraction of overall global warming, and over a short enough period of time that the internal noise of the climate system could be having a significant influence, but it was nevertheless a challenge for climate scientists to explain the precise causes of the difference.
Posted on 24 August 2014 by John Hartz
Dana's Global warming denial rears its ugly head around the world, in English drew the highest number of comments of the articles posted on SkS during the past week. Dikran Marsupial's 2014 Arctic Sea Ice Extent Prediction generated the second highest.
in his article, Climate Change Impacts in Labrador, Robert Way can be seen holding the Labrador flag during a field season studying glaciers in the beautiful Torngat Mountains National Park.
El Niño Watch
- ENSO: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions NOAA, Aug 18, 2014
- Don’t dismiss a 2014 ‘super’ El Niño just yet by Agus Santoso, The Conversation, Aug 21, 2014
Toon of the Week
Posted on 23 August 2014 by John Hartz
- A tale of two cities: Miami, New York and life on the edge
- Atlantic Ocean key to global-warming pause
- Claims of a global warming pause have had no impact on public opinion
- Climate change: meteorologists preparing for the worst
- Coal gas boom in China holds climate change risks
- Don’t dismiss a 2014 ‘super’ El Niño just yet
- Dumping ban urged for Australia’s iconic reef
- Global climate deal may fail to restrain global warming
- Global climate inaction will mean economic turmoil for South Asia
- Grand bargain' may secure enough support for Direct Action to pass Australian Senate
- Has the Atlantic Ocean stalled global warming?
- Hot and getting hotter: Heat islands cooking U.S. cities
- Why climate change could be the biggest threat to your portfolio
- Why I’m a climate change alarmist
- Why our brains are wired to ignore climate change
A tale of two cities: Miami, New York and life on the edge
Walking along the waterfront in Fort Lauderdale and admiring the 60-foot yachts docked alongside impressive homes, it’s hard to imagine that this city could suffer the same financial fate as Detroit. But it is almost as hard to imagine how they will avoid a similar crisis given the sea level rise predicted by scientists.
The Miami-Fort Lauderdale area, with 5.6 million people, is “ground zero” in the battle against the rising seas. Perhaps nowhere else in America are the odds lined up so heavily against a region. With a relatively flat, low-lying landscape, and a porous limestone base that precludes levees, the options for this city do not look good.
A thousand miles north-east lies New York — another city very vulnerable to sea level rise. But after the wake-up call of Superstorm Sandy, Michael Bloomberg, then the mayor of New York City announced “We cannot, and will not, abandon our waterfront” and launched a $20 billion program to protect the city against the rising seas — at least for a little while. So why can’t Miami apply the same formula as New York City, and go back to relaxing on the beach? And what is this concern about sea level rise in the first place?
A Tale of Two Cities: Miami, New York and Life on the Edge by Rob Motta and James White, climate Central, Aug 22, 2014
Posted on 22 August 2014 by Guest Author
Climate scientists have long tried to explain why ice-age cycles became longer and more intense some 900,000 years ago, switching from 41,000-year cycles to 100,000-year cycles.
In a paper published this week in the journal Science Express, researchers report that the deep ocean currents that move heat around the globe stalled or may have stopped at that time, possibly due to expanding ice cover in the Northern Hemisphere.
"The research is a breakthrough in understanding a major change in the rhythm of Earth's climate, and shows that the ocean played a central role," says Candace Major, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF)'s Division of Ocean Sciences, which funded the research.
The slowing currents increased carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in the oceans, leaving less CO2 in the atmosphere. That kept temperatures cold and kicked the climate system into a new phase of colder, but less frequent, ice ages, the scientists believe.
"The oceans started storing more carbon dioxide for a longer period of time," says Leopoldo Pena, the paper's lead author and a paleoceanographer at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO). "Our evidence shows that the oceans played a major role in slowing the pace of the ice ages and making them more severe."
Posted on 21 August 2014 by John Abraham
Meteorologists have the tools to clearly understand how humans are affecting the Earth’s climate. For folks who study weather every day, the changes they’ve seen defy natural explanation. But most meteorologists have to balance their very limited airtime and their reporting obligations with a desire to convey the reality of climate change.
It’s very rare that a meteorologist, let alone a major media organization, take time to bring in-depth discussions to their listeners. But, just this has happened approximately a year ago at Minnesota Public Radio, the largest public radio enterprise in the United States with their star meteorologist Paul Huttner and his deeply knowledgeable host Kerri Miller. This unique venture (a weekly climate show CLIMATE CAST and a weather and climate blog UPDRAFT) and talented team is setting the standard for climate reporting in the United States.
In barely a year, their guest list has included Kevin Trenberth, Ben Santer, Jennifer Francis, Gary Yohe, Anthony Leiserowitz, Steve Vavrus, and Ralph Keeling among others. The depth and reach of Climate Cast have motivated my selection of Paul as my latest Scientist in Focus.
As with most of us, Paul can trace his climate trajectory to his lived experiences. Almost 20 years ago, he covered the infamous Chicago heat wave. That event, which killed approximately 750 citizens, opened his eyes to the impacts of extreme weather events.
Posted on 20 August 2014 by John Hartz
- A ‘major challenge’ to South Asia’s economic development
- Cities’ air problems only get worse with climate change
- Climate change reflected in altered Missouri River flow
- Climate scientist calls on colleagues to speak up on global warming
- Defending forests is daily life for Indian woman leader
- Deforested idle land identified as source of Indonesia "haze" fires
- Earth sliding into ‘ecological debt’ earlier and earlier
- Greenland ice loss doubles from late 2000s
- Here’s how Arctic sea ice could shrink even more
- July checks in as 4th warmest on record worldwide
- Scientists warn of dangers from ocean acidification
- Towards a new co-existence: On reframing our ecological crises
- UN climate talks on path to fall far short of goals
- Understand faulty thinking to tackle climate change
- What I learned from debating science with trolls
A ‘major challenge’ to South Asia’s economic development
India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, the Maldives and Nepal will face "major challenges" as the impacts of climate change start to bite, according to a new report.
The Asian Development Bank's (ADB) 163-page analysis outlines how warmer temperatures and rising seas could hit South Asia's varied economies, home to nearly 1.5 billion people.
It concludes that the "impacts of climate change are likely to result in huge economic, social and environmental damage to South Asian countries".
Climate change a ‘major challenge’ to South Asia’s economic development, report claims by Mat Hope, The Carbon Brief, Aug 20, 2014
Posted on 20 August 2014 by robert way
In 1534, famed explorer Jacques Cartier described Labrador as "the land God gave to Cain". This comparison is inevitably linked to Labrador’s rugged coastal landscapes dotted with deep inlets, fiords and rugged tundra. Culturally the region is steeped in complexity with three distinct indigenous populations intertwined with settlers and settler descendants.
In the north lies the Inuit settlement area of Nunatsiavut, where its predominantly Inuit residents are spread across 5 small communities. The Torngat Mountains National Park is located on the northern tip of Nunatsiavut where the tundra landscape forms part of the Arctic Cordillera and sustains small mountain glaciers along the coast (Brown et al, 2012; Way et al. Accepted). The Arctic treeline in the area descends as low as ~57°N due to the prevailing influence of cold polar water transported along the Labrador coastline by the Labrador Current.
In central and western Labrador, where the climate is considered subarctic, the indigenous population has historically been members of the Innu Nation who every year traveled north to George River to hunt the George River Caribou herd. Currently, there are two Innu communities (Natuashish and Sheshatshiu) which have a combined population of ~2,000 residents. The third aboriginal group in Labrador is largely made up of Inuit who have intermixed with the early European settlers and are now referred to as Nunatukavut (formerly Métis). Their traditional activities span the lands from Cartwright south along the Labrador coast where boreal forest meets coastal barrens.
Throughout much of the modern era of global warming (post-1950s) air and ground temperatures in Labrador cooled, contrasting with many other regions (Allard et al. 1995; Banfield and Jacobs, 1998). This cooling continued until the late 1990s when regional air temperatures begin to warm rapidly (Brown et al. 2012; Way and Viau, In press; Figure 3).
In coastal Labrador, the human impacts of recent climate change have been ubiquitous for the Labrador Inuit who are reliant on sea ice and snow for accessing traditional hunting grounds and neighboring communities. These communities are only accessible by air and sea in the summer and air and snowmobile in the winter. Recent winter warming and local reductions in sea ice/snow cover have reduced access for Inuit to traditional fishing and hunting grounds and also neighboring communities (Wolf et al. 2013).
Vulnerability assessments have identified food security as being a key area in which Labrador’s coastal communities will be susceptible to climate change in the future, which is expected to be on the order of 3°C by 2038-2070 (Finnis 2013). However, the region’s geographic location makes it intrinsically linked to climate variability in the North Atlantic, complicating future climate projections (D’Arrigo et al. 2003).
Posted on 19 August 2014 by Dikran Marsupial
As September is rapidly approaching, I thought I would update my statistical prediction for this years September mean Arctic sea ice extent. I submitted the prediction in July to the Sea Ice Prediction Network, and it seems to be rather lower than the majority of the other predictions (as my prediction is listed as "Cawley"):
Last Year's Prediction
Before discussing this year's prediction, lets see how we fared last year. The prediction made last year is shown in Figure 2, and predicted a 2013 September Arctic sea ice extent of 4.1 ± 1.1 million square kilometres. The minimum Arctic sea ice extent of 5.10 million square kilometres was reached on September 13, 2013. Obviously this figure is substantially greater than the prediction, but still lies within the error bars of the projection, and so fits within the range of inter-annual variability considered plausible by the model. The September mean extent was 5.35 million square kilometres, which lies slightly above the credible interval. Note also that the model actually predicts the mean Arctic sea ice extent for the month of September, and so can be expected to somewhat over-estimate the September minimum.
Posted on 18 August 2014 by dana1981
As people’s understanding of climate science grows, among both experts and non-experts alike, we become more accepting of the fact that humans are the driving force behind global warming. That’s because the evidence supporting human-caused global warming is overwhelming; hence rejection of that reality is usually based on an incomplete understanding of the scientific evidence.
In Australia, Prime Minister Tony Abbott’s chief business adviser Maurice Newman offered a prime example of global warming denial last week. Writing in The Australian, Newman suggested that we’re headed for a period of global cooling due to declining solar activity and related influences from galactic cosmic rays, calling mainstream climate science “a religion.”
As Graham Readfearn showed in his fact check of The Australian opinion piece, Newman got the science badly wrong in almost every way imaginable. Scientific research has consistently shown that a grand solar minimum would barely make a dent in human-caused global warming, and that galactic cosmic rays do not exert a significant influence on the Earth’s climate. To argue otherwise, Newman relied on selective cherry picking of some research, and a misinterpretation of other studies.
Posted on 17 August 2014 by John Hartz
Global warming is moistening the atmosphere by John Abraham garnered the highest number of comments of the articles posted on SkS during the past week. Dana's New study finds fringe global warming contrarians get disproportionate media attention drew the second highest number of comments. Both articles are shortened versions of the what was published by each author on their shared blog post, Climate Consensus-the 97% hosted by The Guardian.
El Niño Watch
- Renewed signs of an El Nino event in 2014 by Peter Hannam, Sydney Morning Herald, Aug 12, 2014
- El Nino’s Delay Spurs Memories of 2012 When It Never Came by Brian K Sullivan, Bloomberg, Aug 15, 2014
Toon of the Week
h/t to I heart Climate Scientists
Posted on 17 August 2014 by John Hartz
- As Earth warms, relationship between science and religion thaws
- Climate change: the elephant in the room
- Climate change will widen the social and health gap
- Communicating climate change – without the scary monsters
- Corporate Australia in denial over climate change
- El Nino’s delay spurs memories of 2012 when it never came
- Is climate change key to the spread of Ebola?
- Many Republicans privately support action on climate
- Snowpack atop Arctic sea ice has dwindled since 1950s
- Solomons town to relocate to escape climate change, tsunamis
- Why we're definitely not headed for another Ice Age
- Will it be extinction or 'translocation' as impacts of climate change increase?
As Earth warms, relationship between science and religion thaws
Congregants in a Miami church handed the Rev. Mitch Hescox a Bible to take with him to Tallahassee. It was a gift for the governor, and it accompanied 60,000 signatures the reverend had collected, all from evangelical Christians, all asking Gov. Rick Scott to do more on climate change.
Hescox is a leader of a movement among conservative Christians to acknowledge climate change and push elected officials to do more to mitigate its damage.
He's hardly a wild-eyed environmentalist — a lifelong Republican, he considers himself a conservative on most issues. Nevertheless, Hescox represents a growing group of evangelicals who believe stewardship of the Earth is a believer's duty.
The reverend, who for the last five years has served as president of the Washington, D.C.-based Evangelical Environmental Network, brought his message to South Florida last week. This state is expected to be a crucial battleground in the fight against rising seas. At the same time, its governor has been famously climate-change averse.
As Earth warms, relationship between science and religion thaws by Dan Sweeney, Sun Sentinel, Aug 16, 2014
Posted on 16 August 2014 by John Hartz
- Adaptation gaps mean African farmers fork out more money for reduced harvests
- Antarctica may lift sea level faster in threat to megacities
- Charles Mann and The Atlantic miss the mark in a confused climate change piece
- Dismantling Australian climate policy: a case study in disagreement
- Heavy rain and floods: The 'new normal' with climate change?
- Montana: Big Sky country, big climate problems
- Recent glacial melt mostly caused by man-made greenhouse gas emissions
- Recent urban floods: A simple equation
- Swamped by rising seas, small islands seek a lifeline
- Thinning Arctic snow could alter North Pole ecosystem
- Tibet's glaciers at their warmest in 2,000 years - report
- Why are we not taking climate change seriously?
Adaptation gaps mean African farmers fork out more money for reduced harvests
In Cameroon’s Northwest Region, Judith Muma walks 9km from her home to her 300-square-metre farm. The vegetables she grows here are flourishing thanks to the money she has borrowed from her njangi (thrift group) and a local credit union to finance a small artisanal irrigation scheme.
“I spend more money today buying farm implements such as water tanks, watering pumps, fertilisers, insecticides and improved seeds. I think we must spend in farming today if we want to adapt to climate change,” Muma tells IPS.
Cameroon’s economy is primarily agrarian and about 70 percent of this Central African nation’s 21.7 million people are involved in farming. Changes in temperature and precipitation pose a serious threat to the nation’s economy where agriculture contributes about 45 percent to the annual GDP.
Adaptation Gaps Mean African Farmers Fork Out More Money for Reduced Harvests by Monde Kingsley Nfor, Inter Press Service (IPS), Aug 14, 2014
Posted on 15 August 2014 by Guest Author
This is a re-post from Roz Pidcock at Carbon Brief
Last month, forecasters were predicting with 90 per cent certainty we'd see an El Niño by the end of the year, driving severe weather patterns worldwide. But with little sign so far of the ocean and atmospheric changes scientists expected, those odds have dropped off quite a bit.
We'll probably still see an El Niño before the year's out but it's unlikely to be a strong one, scientists are saying.
What is an El Niño?
Every five years or so, a change in the winds causes a shift to warmer than normal ocean temperatures in the equatorial Pacific Ocean - a phenomena known as El Niño.
Together, El Niño and its cooler counterpart La Niña are known as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Between them, they're responsible for most of the fluctuations in global weather we see from one year to the next.
Posted on 14 August 2014 by John Hartz
- Ants may boost CO2 absorption enough to slow global warming
- Brazil readies big push on solar energy but companies are wary
- Climate change and health - joining the dots
- Cutting emissions to avoid the worst impacts of climate change
- Danger to Great Barrier Reef growing
- In the ocean, clues to change
- Keystone XL could be worse for climate change than U.S. claims
- 'Not a mystery' why Republicans are blind facts on climate change
- Renewed signs of an El Nino event in 2014
- Rules prevent solar panels in many states with abundant sunlight
- Scientific consensus on climate change has not permeated the public
- The lasting damage of sudden heat waves is highly unpredictable
- Tony Abbott under pressure to put climate change on G20 agenda
- What climate change in the Rockies means for its water
- Why more companies should tie bonuses to sustainability
Ants may boost CO2 absorption enough to slow global warming
What if you could build a brick fence in your backyard that would offset a portion of your daily carbon dioxide emissions, such as those produced on your drive home from work? Would you do it?
Ronald Dorn, professor of geography at Arizona State University in Tempe, would. Except the fence he has in mind wouldn’t be just constructed from any old brick. It would be coated with calcium or magnesium and inhabited by a colony of ants.
If this idea sounds bizarre to you, that’s probably because—as Dorn himself would admit—it is. Yet, he says, it is conceivable that people all over the world could one day use their own version of this mineral/ant–based method of CO2 capture to limit the gas in the atmosphere and thereby help control its global heating effects.
Ants May Boost CO2 Absorption Enough to Slow Global Warming by Kevin Schultz, Scientific American, Aug 12, 2014
Posted on 13 August 2014 by John Abraham
We have long suspected that greenhouse gases which cause the Earth to warm would lead to a wetter atmosphere. The latest research published by Eul-Seok Chung, Brian Soden, and colleagues provides new insight into what was thought to be an old problem. In doing so, they experimentally verified what climate models have been predicting. The models got it right… again.
To be clear, this paper does not prove that water vapor is a greenhouse gas. We have known that for years. Nevertheless, the paper make a very nice contribution. The authors show that the long-term increase in water vapor in the upper troposphere cannot have resulted from natural causes – it is clearly human caused. This conclusion is stated in the abstract,
Our analysis demonstrates that the upper-tropospheric moistening observed over the period 1979–2005 cannot be explained by natural causes and results principally from an anthropogenic warming of the climate. By attributing the observed increase directly to human activities, this study verifies the presence of the largest known feedback mechanism for amplifying anthropogenic climate change.
Posted on 12 August 2014 by dana1981
A new study led by Bart Verheggen surveyed 1,868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, asking them several questions mainly focused on what’s causing global warming. They survey also asked the respondents,
How frequently have you featured in the media regarding your views on climate change?
The answers to this question reflect whether the media is really fair and balanced on the subject of global warming. A truly balanced media would give equally proportional attention and coverage to climate scientists in the mainstream and on the fringes. For example, if 20% of contrarian climate scientists reported frequent media attention, a fair and balanced media would also give frequent coverage to 20% of mainstream climate scientists.
Instead, fringe contrarian climate scientists reported that they receive frequent media coverage twice as often as mainstream climate scientists.